Projects

Kaletepe Hydropower Project

With the advantage of daily storage, two equal capacity Francis type turbines are used
 

Project Information

Client: Kayı Construction

Location: Erzurum

Status: Completed

 

 

 

Key Features

Diversion Type

Installed Capacity 12 MW

Hard Climate Conditions

Forebay With Pondage

Five Diversion Weirs

Long Siphons

 

Summary

Kaletepe HEPP is a diversion type hydroelectric power facility collecting water from five different branches via its tyrolean weirs at the high elevations of Ziyaret and Yagcilar Streams. Kaletepe HEPP which started to commercial activity in 2009, is characterized with five weirs, a long conveyance channel, a forebay large enough to meet daily regulating demand, a long penstock and severe weather conditions in the vicinity.

 Kaletepe Headpond with Pondage

Kaletepe Headpond with Pondage

Conveyance line and the penstock were constructed below freezing depth in order to avoid freezing damages which can be caused by the stopping of the daily regulated production. 11,154 m long conveyance channel consists of U-PVC pipe having different diameters varying from 0.80 m to 1.60 m and three siphons with 195 m, 825 m and 390 m lengths. Conveyance line and the penstock were constructed below freezing depth in order to avoid freezing damages which can be caused by the stopping of the daily regulated production. Since it is not practical to construct each weir with its own storage, a forebay with a storage of 30,000 m3 is designed and constructed to supply daily regulation. In this manner, the loss in energy production due to flows below the minimum turbine discharge is eliminated and the maximum energy production is increased. With the advantage of daily storage, two equal capacity Francis type turbines are used.

Kayakopru I-II Hydropower Projects

The penstock of Kayakopru-I HEPP was adapted by inclined pipe-jacking method at two regions with a length of 156 m and 101 m due to field conditions and expropriation restrictions.
 

Project Information

Client: Arsan Energy

Location: Giresun

Status: Completed

 

Key Features

Diversion Type

Installed Capacity 40 MW

Cascade Projects

Pondage In Tunnel

Unlined Long Tunnel

Cylindirical Forebay

 

Summary

Kayakopru-I HEPP and Kayakopru-II HEPP are both diversion type hydropower facilities over Yagli Creek. These projects are in commercial activity since 2012.

 Kayakopru HEPP

Kayakopru HEPP

Kayakopru-I HEPP makes use of the head between 853.55 m and 582 m of Yagli Creek and Kayakopru-II HEPP makes use of the head between 582 m and 500 m of Yagli Creek for energy generation. One of the most significant features of the projects is the long conveyance tunnels whose lengths are 6,770 m and 2,745 m for Kayakopru-I and II HEPPs, respectively. In these projects, tunnels are designed such that they can be used for daily storage by making use of the volume of the tunnels. The storage capacity is 42,300 m3 for Kayakopru-I HEPP, and 22,000 m3 for Kayakopru-II HEPP. Three different excavation cross-sections - 4.40 m diameter and 4.40 m height, 5.40 m diameter and 4.90 m height, 5.40 m diameter and 5.10 m height- have been used for conveyance tunnel of Kayakopru-I HEPP and a single excavation cross-section - 4.40 m diameter and 4.40 m height- has been used for conveyance tunnel of Kayakopru-II HEPP. The topography of the area is too steep which increases excavation amount significantly. In order to reduce the amount of excavation, circular forebays are designed in both projects. The penstock of Kayakopru-I HEPP was adapted by inclined pipe-jacking method at two regions with a length of 156 m and 101 m due to field conditions and expropriation restrictions. By taking the advantage of having daily storage, two Francis type units with equal capacity can be used effectively.


Buyukbahce Bagbasi Hydropower Project

The forebay of Buyukbahce HEPP project is designed to have 50 000 m3 active storage for daily regulation.
 

Project Information

Client: Kayi Construction

Location: Erzurum

Status: Completed 

 

Key Features

Diversion Type

Installed Capacity 26MW

Cascade Projects

Forebay with Pondage

Long Water Conveyance Line

Long Siphon

 

Summary

Buyukbahce HEPP and Bagbasi HEPP are both diversion type hydropower facilities located in Eastern Anatolia Region within the border of Erzurum province over the Katikli Creek. Buyukbahce HEPP makes use of the head between 1,575 m and 1,355 m and Bagbasi HEPP makes use of the head between 1,355 m and 1,151 m of Katikli Creek.

Buyukbahce HEPP is designed to produce energy by diverting the flows of Katıklı Creek with the weir to the powerhouse located at the tailwater elevation of 1 355 m. Bagbasi weir located just at the downstream of Buyukbahce HEPP is designed to divert the outflows of Buyukbahce HEPP and flows of the sub basins to the Bagbasi powerhouse at tailwater elevation of 1 151 m. Buyukbahce HEPP project is composed of a diversion weir, 2,860 m long GRP pipeline, 6 590 m long U-PVC pipeline, a forebay, 456 m long penstock and a powerhouse

Similarly Bagbasi HEPP project contains a diversion weir, 2,070 m long GRP pipeline, 11 280 m long U-PVC pipeline, a forebay, 356 m long penstock and a powerhouse. By selecting the pipes in various diameters, the shipping charges are reduced considerably. The forebay of Buyukbahce HEPP project is designed to have 50 000 m3 active storage for daily regulation. Thanks to this design, low regimes of flow are stored at the forebay and can be turbined at peak hours. Being located at the downstream of Buyukbahce HEPP, Bagbasi HEPP can take the advantage of this storage capacity as well. By this means, the need for storage of both facilities is solved with just one reservoir. Both powerhouses have two equal capacity horizontal axis Francis turbines.

 

Koprubasi Hydropower Project

The system having the storage capacity of 200.000 m3 behind the dam will fulfill the daily regulation with two equal capacity Francis type turbines.
 

Project Information

Client: Arsan Energy

Location: Gumushane

Status: Completed

 

 

Key Features

Concrete Gravity Dam

Installed Capacity 15 MW

Pondage

Stepped Spillway

 

Summary

Koprubasi Hydropower Project is a diversion type hydropower facility which makes use of the head between 1,245 m and 1,135 m of Siran Creek.

The project mainly consists of concrete gravity dam of height of 23 m, 3 km long reinforced concrete conduit with rectangular cross section, 1.625 m long concrete lined tunnel, a forebay, a 255 m long penstock and a powerhouse. The system having the storage capacity of 200.000 m3 behind the dam will fulfill the daily regulation with two equal capacity Francis type turbines.

Gunesli-II Hydropower Project

Implementation of the circular forebay reduced both the volume of excavation and the total cost.
 

Project Information

Client: Asya Enerji

Location: Trabzon

Status: Completed

 

 

Key Features

Diversion Type

Installed Capacity 13 MW

Pondage In Tunnel

Unlined Tunnel

Cylindrical Forebay

Single Unit Vertical Kaplan Turbine

 

 

Summary

Gunesli-II Hydropower Project is a diversion type hydroelectric facility that makes use of the head between 155 m and 103 m of Solakli Creek for energy generation. The construction of the project is still ongoing and it is planned to operate within the first half of 2013.

 Gunesli II Weir

Gunesli II Weir

The project is composed of weir structures, 3,300 m long open channel flow conveyance tunnel, forebay, valve room, 220 m long penstock, powerhouse and a 140 m long tail race canal. The type of conveyance structure is determined as tunnnel and social impacts and the cost of expropriation were minimized. Another important structure within the scope of the project is the circular forebay with 25 m diameter and 18.40 m height. Implementation of the circular forebay reduced both the volume of excavation and the total cost. By use of the storage capacity of forebay and the tunnel, the flows under minimum turbine capacity can be stored and then turbined efficiently which increases regulation ratio. The emergency valve is installed at the inlet of the penstock that serves as the turbine inlet valve eliminates the extra cost for turbine operation valve. Considering the head and project discharge, single unit of Kaplan type turbine is used. The deep excavations at and around the powerhouse were safely executed with anchored pile support system designed by Prosem Engineering.

Pasa Hydropower Project

Together with the forebay, the conveyance line can serve as a storage of 50.000 m3 volume to meet the demand for daily regulation.
 

Project Information

Client: BM Holding

Location: Bolu

Status: Completed

 

 

Key Features

Diversion Type

Installed Capacity 9 MW

Long Conduit

Storage In Conduit

Semi-Indoor Powerhouse

Concrete Siphon

 

 

Summary

Pasa Hydropower Project is a diversion type hydroelectric facility that makes use of the head between 593 m and 512 m of Bolu Creek and started the commercial activity in 2010.

 Pasa Diversion Weir and HEPP

Pasa Diversion Weir and HEPP

The project consists of weir structures, 6.000 m long reinforced concrete conduit, forebay, 700 m long penstock, powerhouse and tailwater channel. Silty clay alluvium deposit depth at the weir location is 16 m and removal of this deposit is economically not feasible. Therefore, weir structures were placed on deposit provided that bearing capacity of soil is high enough to support the foundations of structures, thereby avoiding the extra costs. Project is located in an area covered by dense vegetation and exposed to landslides and high seismic activity. In order to protect the conveyance channel from the risks mentioned above, the channel was designed as reinforced concrete conduit. The conveyance channel contains 300 m long reinforced concrete siphon resisting up to 4 atm pressure. Together with the forebay, the conveyance line can serve as a storage of 50.000 m3 volume to meet the demand for daily regulation. The powerhouse is semi-indoor type and includes two Francis turbines of different capacities increasing the rate of regulation.

 

Azmak Hydropower Project

The biggest and the first rubber dam application in hydroelectric projects in Turkey.
 

Project Information

Client: BM Holding

Location: Ermenek

Status: Completed

 

Key Features

Total Installed Capacity 25 MW

Run-of-River Type

Rubber Dam

1000 m3/s Spillway Capacity

Semi-Indoor Powerhouse

S-Type Kaplan Turbine

Long Riverbed Excavation 

 

Summary

Azmak-I HEPP, Azmak-II HEPP and Kirpilik HEPP are run-of-river type hydroelectric facilities which were constructed over the Ermenek River. They are placed from upstream to downstream as Azmak-I HEPP, Azmak-II HEPP and Kirpilik HEPP respectively and they started to be in commercial activity in 2010.

In the upstream of these projects, Gezende Dam and HEPP which was put into operation in 1991 and Ermenek Dam and HEPP which is the highest dam of Turkey with its altitude of 218 m are located. Although there are two reservoirs in the upstream, the spillway structures were designed to be able to evacuate a high flood discharge of 1,000 m3/s since the Ermenek River has a huge flood potential.

 Azmak HEPP

Azmak HEPP

Rubber Dam

The most important characteristic of these projects is that they all have rubber dam, 5 m in height and 48 m in width which make them the biggest and the first time used in hydroelectric projects rubber dam application in Turkey. Usage of rubber dam as the control mechanism of spillway eliminates the need for twelve steel gates with the dimensions of 5 m x 4 m and their reinforced concrete piers, which results in savings in the first capital and operating costs. All application projects and detail solutions of these rubber dams were prepared by Prosem Engineering.

S-Type Kaplan Turbine

Since the head is low and the flow is high for all three projects, S-type Kaplan turbines were installed for the first time in Turkey.

Riverbed Excavation 4.500.000 cu.m

The riverbed levels at the downstream of the projects have been lowered up to 5 m resulting a drop in tailwater levels. In this way the amount of agricultural lands laying under water is reduced and the negative social effects and expropriation costs are minimized.

Foundation Design

In the projects the spillways and RCC body were directly placed on alluvial ground. The foundations of the structures are designed in such a way that there is no need for soil improvements causing extra costs.

Kale Hydropower Project

The first hydroelectric project that uses Pressure Relief Valves in Turkey.
 

Project Information

Client: Asa Energy

Location: Rize

Status: Completed

 

Key Features

Diversion Type

Total Installed Capacity 10 MW

 

Transient Analysis

Pressure Relief Valve

Long Penstock

 
 

Summary

Kale Hydropower Project started to operate on February 2010 and since then it is the first and only hydroelectric project that uses Pressure Relief Valves in Turkey. The project mainly consist of Tascami Weir which takes water at elevation of 309 m on Gurgen Creek, a conveyance tunnel that diverts the water to Kale Weir which is located on Kale River, Kale Weir, a long penstock, pressure relief valves and a powerhouse that has three equal capacity Francis Turbine units. Penstock is one of the most important components of the project with its remarkable length. It is a spiral welded and buried steel pipe having a length of 3.530 m and a diameter of 2 m. In the project, six “Pressure Relief Valves” having a diameter of 400 mm have been used in order to keep the pressure rises due to the long penstock and Francis type turbines at a reasonable level.

 Kale Weir

Kale Weir

Socially and Environmentally Friendly Solution

The power house of the project is located at a place where the settlement is dense and tea agriculture is widespread. If a classical diversion type hydropower project was to be adopted, a forebay or a surge tank and related access roads would have been constructed. The negative environmental and social impacts of these constructions have made a classical divergence type design impossible. The most feasible solution among the studied alternatives was to lay a penstock under the existing village road that runs parallel to the river and convey the water to the turbines via this buried penstock.

Cost Effective Result

With this approach, the project has become applicable, the environmental and social impacts have been reduced to the least possible extent and a considerable cost saving has been ensured. The high pressure rises due to the long penstock and Francis type turbine have been prevented by using the “Pressure Relief Valves” and an economical penstock design has been achieved by keeping the pressure rises at a reasonable level. Manufacturing and laying of pipes and putting the road with the improvements into service were accomplished in a period as short as four months.

 

Kizilirmak Kargi Dam and Hydropower Project

The project area is located within the first-degree seismic zone on North Anatolian Fault (NAF) which is the main source of major earthquakes in Turkey.
 

Project Information

Client: Akel Energy

Location: Çorum

Status: Completed

 

Key Features

Diversion Type

Installed Capacity 104 MW

RCC Dam

Pondage

Surge Tank

Power Tunnel

Seismic Hazard Assessment

 

 

Summary

Kargı DAM & HEPP is a dam type hydroelectric facility that is located over Kızılırmak River. At the upstream of the river, there are large storage facilities in operation such as Yamula, Hirfanlı, Kesikköprü, Kapulukaya and Obruk Dams as well as many other facilities for supplying drinking and irrigation water. At the downstream of the river, Boyabat Dam is still under construction.

In the feasibility report that was prepared by EIE in 1997 under the consultancy of Dolsar Company, the power plant was designed underground and near the dam body in order to keep it far from the fault. Additional studies have been conducted for an accurate evaluation of the seismic risk of the project by Prosem Engineering. First study is the tectonic investigation of the area which resulted in “Active Tectonic Investigation Report” prepared by Prof. Dr. Ali Koçyiğit from Active Tectonics and Earthquake Research Center, Department of Geological Engineering in Middle East Technical University (METU) in 2007. Following this investigation, it is found out that, penstock and the underground power plant location at the Geyiktepe dam axis in the feasibility report prepared in 1997 were located on the active faults of Hacıhamza-Dodurga Fault zone. It is also noticed that the potential of liquefaction of Ardıçköy Alluvium Range that located at the left coast of Geyiktepe poses great risks for Kargı Dam. In addition, another study entitled “Preliminary Seismic Hazard Assessment for Kargı Dam Hydroelectric Power Plant and Tunnel” has been conducted by Prof. Dr. Polat Gülkan from Department of Civil Engineering METU and Dr. Erol Kalkan from California Geological Survey in 2007. In the year 2008, “Kargı Dam and HEPP Project Expropriation Study Report Related with the Expropriation and Relocations for Four Different Dam Axes” is prepared. In the revised feasibility report that is prepared by Prosem in 2008, an extensive study has been conducted to identify the most suitable location among all alternatives for the dam axis by benefiting from above mentioned reports and studies.

The operational water level of the project is kept at flood level to obtain the possible highest head. The reservoir area is 5.79 km2 and the volume is 20.78 hm3 at the operational water level of 406 m with 15.17 hm3 active storage. The water taken with inlet structure is conveyed to the power plant possessing a Francis type hydroelectric turbine through an 11.5 km-long energy tunnel and a surge tank.